The crew escaped by camping on the sea ice until it disintegrated, then by launching the lifeboats to reach Elephant Island and ultimately South Georgia Island, a stormy ocean voyage of 720 nautical miles (1,330 km; 830 mi) and Shackleton's most famous exploit. Please tell us about Shackleton’s Endurance expedition. He became a farmer instead, settling in Kilkea. He is best known for his 1914-1916 attempt to traverse the Antarctic which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a story of remarkable perseverance and survival. Although it is likely that Norwegian whalers had previously crossed at other points on ski, no one had attempted this particular route before. Yelcho, commanded by Captain Luis Pardo, and the British whaler Southern Sky reached Elephant Island on 30 August 1916, at which point the men had been isolated there for four and a half months, and Shackleton quickly evacuated all 22 men. Above, is the notice for employment on the Endurance posted by Shackleton. , After five harrowing days at sea, the exhausted men landed their three lifeboats at Elephant Island, 346 miles (557 km) from where the Endurance sank. , None of these enterprises prospered, and his main source of income was his earnings from lecture tours. Our podcast series is themed on Shackleton’s four key principles and we look at his expertise and methods and at how these relate to the issues we are facing as we navigate the current situation. At the same time, attitudes towards Scott were gradually changing as a more critical note was sounded in the literature, culminating in Roland Huntford's 1979 treatment of him in his dual biography Scott and Amundsen, described by Barczewski as a "devastating attack". However, all final decisions were made by Shackleton. Despite his assurances to Emily that "we are practically sure of the contract", nothing came of this scheme. They found that the Barrier Inlet had expanded to form a large bay, in which were hundreds of whales, which led to the immediate christening of the area as the Bay of Whales. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. He thought seriously of going to the Beaufort Sea area of the Arctic, a largely unexplored region, and raised some interest in this idea from the Canadian government. Shackleton, also called “The Boss”, was among the greatest explorers to ever walk on this earth. , From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. He travelled widely, but was keen to explore the poles. ernest shackleton achieved many things but the one he is most famous for is the endurance expedition. However, Ernest had a different idea about what he wanted to do. The crew of 28 had a meteorologist, a biologist, a carpenter, a physicist, a cook, a photographer, a couple of officers, seamen, firemen, and surgeons. What did Shackleton decide to do? In a Christie's auction in London in 2011, a biscuit that Shackleton gave "a starving fellow traveller" on the 1907–1909 Nimrod expedition sold for £1250. , To conserve coal, the ship was towed 1,650 miles (2,655 km) by the steamer Koonya to the Antarctic ice, after Shackleton had persuaded the New Zealand government and the Union Steamship Company to share the cost. Shackleton chose five companions for the journey: Frank Worsley, Endurance's captain, who would be responsible for navigation; Tom Crean, who had "begged to go"; two strong sailors in John Vincent and Timothy McCarthy, and finally the carpenter McNish.  Although in public they remained mutually respectful and cordial, according to biographer Roland Huntford, Shackleton's attitude to Scott turned to "smouldering scorn and dislike"; salvage of wounded pride required "a return to the Antarctic and an attempt to outdo Scott".  They arrived at Hut Point just in time to catch the ship. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton is best known as a polar explorer who was associated with four expeditions exploring Antarctica, particularly the Trans-Antarctic ( Endurance) Expedition (1914–16) that he led, which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a tale of remarkable perseverance and survival. Visiting history on South Georgia Island, Ernest Shackleton's final resting place This tiny south Atlantic island is the last resting place of one the world's greatest polar explorers, Ernest Shackleton.  Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. After a few days, with the position at 69° 5' S, 51° 30' W, Shackleton gave the order to abandon ship, saying, "She's going down! , On Shackleton's return home, public honours were quickly forthcoming. King Edward VII received him on 10 July and raised him to a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order; in the King's Birthday Honours list in November, he was made a knight, becoming Sir Ernest Shackleton. "Chiefly alcohol, Boss," replied Macklin. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a polar explorer who led four expeditions exploring Antarctica. In tribute to their achievement, he wrote: "I do not know how they did it, except that they had to—three men of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration with 50 feet of rope between them—and a carpenter's adze".. , During the following four years at sea, Shackleton learned his trade, visiting the far corners of the earth and forming acquaintances with a variety of people from many walks of life, learning to be at home with all kinds of men. There is a legend that says Shackleton's newspaper article was written a certain way so that he could better narrow down and select candidates for his expedition. Born close to the village of Kilkea, between Castledermot and Athy, in the south of County Kildare in 1874, Ernest Shackleton is renowned for his courage, his commitment to the welfare of his comrades and his immense contribution to exploration and geographical discovery. Who Was Ernest Shackleton? He also socialized with his crew members every evening after dinner, leading sing-alongs, jokes, and games. Shackleton immediately sent a boat to pick up the three men from the other side of South Georgia while he set to work to organise the rescue of the Elephant Island men. As a young boy, his family moved to England where he started his first formal schooling.  Shackleton was also appointed a Younger Brother of Trinity House, a significant honour for British mariners.  He was in a seriously weakened condition; Wilson's diary entry for 14 January reads: "Shackleton has been anything but up to the mark, and today he is decidedly worse, very short winded and coughing constantly, with more serious symptoms that need not be detailed here but which are of no small consequence one hundred and sixty miles from the ship". Shackleton travelled there to join Aurora, and sailed with her to the rescue of the Ross Sea party. [d] En route the South Pole party discovered the Beardmore Glacier—named after Shackleton's patron—and became the first persons to see and travel on the South Polar Plateau.  The James Caird was launched on 24 April 1916; during the next fifteen days, it sailed through the waters of the southern ocean, at the mercy of the stormy seas, in constant peril of capsizing. Times were hard because of a severe potato crop failure, so his family moved to England, where he would spend the rest of his childhood. Ireland has always been known for having large families, and even today, they are the country with the third highest fertility rate in Europe. , It was noted that ice conditions were unstable, precluding the establishment of a safe base there. 2.  Leonard Hussey, a veteran of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition, offered to accompany the body back to Britain; while he was in Montevideo en route to England, a message was received from Emily Shackleton asking that her husband be buried in South Georgia. But, always the leader, he persevered and did not rest until he had all of his men back to civilization. Although some of his former crew members had not received all their pay from the Endurance expedition, many of them signed on with their former "Boss". He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Suffering from a heart condition, made worse by the fatigue of his arduous journeys, and too old to be conscripted, he nevertheless volunteered for the army. According to Macklin's own account, Macklin told him he had been overdoing things and should try to "lead a more regular life", to which Shackleton answered: "You are always wanting me to give up things, what is it I ought to give up?" Other crew included James, Hussey, Greenstreet, a carpenter Harry McNish, and a biologist named Clark. , Elephant Island was an inhospitable place, far from any shipping routes; rescue by means of chance discovery was very unlikely. Partly this was in search of better professional prospects for the newly qualified doctor, but another factor may have been unease about their Anglo-Irish ancestry, following the assassination by Irish nationalists of Lord Frederick Cavendish, the British Secretary for Ireland, in 1882.  This was the first time they had stood on solid ground for 497 days. They wrote: "Shackleton resonates with executives in today's business world.  He was finally discharged from the army in October 1919, retaining his rank of major. Its … Mrs Chippy was shot when the Endurance sank, due to the belief that he would not have survived the ordeal that followed. The Anglo-Irish family of Shackleton was not the exception. Ernest Shackleton // by Maria Isabel Sanchez Vegara // illustrated by Olivia Holden "Difficulties are just things to overcome, after all."  He ultimately selected a crew of 56, twenty-eight on each ship. He was one of the principal figures of the "Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration". On 24 October, water began pouring in. Shackleton: Everyone did everything that he was capable of doing, and that's the crux.  Within a year the first biography, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton, by Hugh Robert Mill, was published. , According to steward Clarence Hare, he was "the most popular of the officers among the crew, being a good mixer", though claims that this represented an unofficial rival leadership to Scott's are unsupported. , The next successful crossing of South Georgia was in October 1955, by the British explorer Duncan Carse, who travelled much of the same route as Shackleton's party. While Shackleton did not achieve his ambition to cross the Antarctic he has become famous for his triumphs of honesty and humanitarianism. (, Beardmore's help took the form of guaranteeing a loan at Clydesdale Bank, for £7,000 (2008 equivalent approx.  His father was able to secure him a berth with the North Western Shipping Company, aboard the square-rigged sailing ship Hoghton Tower. After a medical examination (which proved inconclusive), Scott decided to send Shackleton home on the relief ship Morning, which had arrived in McMurdo Sound in January 1903. 1. (, The distance from the Pole is commonly given as 97 or 98 miles, this being the distance in nautical miles. , Endurance departed from South Georgia for the Weddell Sea on 5 December, heading for Vahsel Bay.  A record Farthest South latitude of 82° 17' was reached, beating the previous record established in 1900 by Carsten Borchgrevink. [f] The transcontinental journey, in Shackleton's words, was the "one great object of Antarctic journeyings" remaining, now open to him. The meteorologist was Captain L. Hussey, also an able banjo player. E xplorer Explorer Sir Raymond Priestley said: "For scientific discovery give me [Robert Falcon] Scott; for speed and efficiency of travel give me [Roald] Amundsen; but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for [Ernest] Shackleton.". , The plan changed; the destination became the Antarctic, and the project was defined by Shackleton as an "oceanographic and sub-antarctic expedition". by Paul Clammer Posted on 20 June 2018. ", Study of diaries kept by Eric Marshall, medical officer to the 1907–09 expedition, suggests that Shackleton suffered from an atrial septal defect ("hole in the heart"), a congenital heart defect, which may have been a cause of his health problems..  With Sir Clements Markham's blessing, he accepted a temporary post assisting the outfitting of the Terra Nova for the second Discovery relief operation, but turned down the offer to sail with her as chief officer. When spring arrived in September, the breaking of the ice and its later movements put extreme pressures on the ship's hull. Not only did he 'walk the talk', he did it by threating all equally, and with consideration. , Besides the official honours, Shackleton's Antarctic feats were greeted in Britain with great enthusiasm. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was one of the main polar explorers of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.  Public interest in the expedition was considerable; Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications to join it. , The party set out on 2 November 1902. Ernest Shackleton Ernest Shackleton Short Biography. It is clear to me where our first duty lies, and this morning I telegraphed the First Lord of the Admiralty and put our ship, and every one of us, at his disposal. It was led by Robert Falcon Scott, a Royal Navy torpedo lieutenant lately promoted commander, and had objectives that included scientific and geographical discovery.  In 1920, tired of the lecture circuit, Shackleton began to consider the possibility of a last expedition. It is likely that many debts were not pressed and were written off.  This negative picture of Scott became accepted as the popular truth as the kind of heroism that Scott represented fell victim to the cultural shifts of the late twentieth century. Ernest Shackleton’s Endurance expedition was the remarkable final chapter in the Heroic Age of Exploration. So much to learn from his leadsership and vision which he demonstrated on many occasions. Shackleton's mother, Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan, was descended from the Fitzmaurice family. He studied at Dulwich College at the age of 13, and although he disliked school, he placed 5th in a class of 31 students during his final term.  In the midst of seeking capital, his plans foundered when Northern Russia fell to Bolshevik control.  As the first significant person to return from the Antarctic, he found that he was in demand; in particular, the Admiralty wished to consult him about its further proposals for the rescue of Discovery. With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. Sir Ernest Shackleton was an explorer who in 1901 joined an expedition to the Antarctic. To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. He launched one more expedition to the Antarctic, but the Endurance veterans … The Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914–1917 is considered to be the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. During the Nimrod expedition of 1907–1909, he and three companions established a new record Farthest South latitude at 88°S, only 97 geographical miles (112 statute miles or 180 kilometres) from the South Pole, the largest advance to the pole in exploration history. He joined the merchant navy when he was 16 and became a master mariner. , In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, moving his family to the city.  On 17 February 1901, his appointment as third officer to the expedition's ship Discovery was confirmed; on 4 June he was commissioned into the Royal Navy, with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve. The Shackleton family are of English origin, specifically from Yorkshire.  On the way he was taken ill in Tromsø, possibly with a heart attack.  On 16 September 1921, Shackleton recorded a farewell address on a sound-on-film system created by Harry Grindell Matthews, who claimed it was the first "talking picture" ever made. He was built for adventure and had little use for civilized society -- so he set sail for the coldest place on Earth. (, This expedition took place under Mawson, without Shackleton's participation, as the, Filchner was able to bring back geographical information that would be of much use to Shackleton, including the discovery of a possible landing site at, Churchill sent Shackleton a one-word telegram on 3 August –, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, List of personnel of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton: Funeral Ceremony In South Georgia: Many Wreaths On Coffin, Shackleton's Last Voyage: the Story of the Quest, "Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton may have had hole in his heart, doctors say", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry of 14 Milnethorpe-road, Eastbourne, knight", "Reliving Shackleton's Epic Endurance Expedition", "Ernest Shackleton Honoured with Birthday Google Doodle", "Team sets out to recreate Shackleton's epic journey", "Sir Ernest Shackleton medals raise £585,000 at auction", "Elation for Adelaide adventurer Tim Jarvis as epic Antarctic trek ends", "Polar Explorer vs. Ernest Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874 in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, to Henry Shackleton, and Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan and was the second of ten children. 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